- 9,000 B.C. the first people arrived in the region that is now called Latvia. These people were the Semigallian, Couronian, Letgallian, and Selonian tribes of the Balts, and of the Livonian tribe, which belonged to the Fino-Ugric ethnic families.
- 9th-10th century A.D.: Viking raids into Latvian territory.
Baltic and neighbouring European tribes from the 9th to 11th centuries.
- In the seventh decade of the 12th century, German traders travelled for the first time up the Daugava estuary.
Baltic tribes in the 12th century.
- The ancient Latvian tribal people: Latgallians, Selonians, Cours, Semigallians were not only farmers, but also raiders.
- In the 12th and 13th centuries the German crusaders invaded. The Cours and Semigallians were the last to capitulate. By the end of the 13th century the Germans held power.
- 1236 After the Battle of Saule, the Livonia Order was formed as a branch of the German Teutonic Order.
- During the 14th to 15th centuries Livonia’s leaders fought amongst themselves, in addition to the Lithuanians and Russians.
- 1503 a peace agreement was made between Livonia and Russia, that was upheld for many decades. Farmers were prohibited from holding firearms.
- During the 1620’s reformation reached Livonia and Lutheranism was introduced.
- 1558-1583 Livonian War. Russia (Ivan the Terrible), Poland-Lithuania and Sweden fight for influence in Livonia.
- 1584–1589 The Calendar unrest in Riga.
- 1585 The first known book published in the Latvian language, P.Kanizija Catholic Catechism.
- 1600-1629 The Polish-Swedish war.
- 1642–1682. The Duke of Courland, Jacob Kettler rules over Courland and Semigallia.
- In 1685 The Bible is translated for the first time into Latvian by Ernsts Glücks.
- 1700-1721 The Great Northern War.
- 1721 Peace agreement between Sweden and Russia. Vidzeme is officially incorporated into Russia.
- 1772 Agreement about the division of Poland between Russia, Austria and Prussia. Latgale is incorporated into Russia.
- Napoleonic forces invade Latvia in 1812.
- In 1822 the first newspaper ‘Latviešu Avīzes’ is produced in the Latvian language.
- In 1868 the Riga Latvian Society is founded to promote Latvian education and culture.
- The first Latvian Song Festival is held in 1873.
- 18th November, 1918, The Republic of Latvia proclaims independence.
- 18th November, 1935, the Freedom Monument is unveiled in Riga.
- 23rd of August, 1939, the USSR and Germany sign the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, which includes secret protocols that designate Latvia within the Soviet sphere of influence.
- The USSR occupies Latvia during the summer of 1940.
- Germany attacks the USSR in 1941. German forces occupy Latvia.
- Hostilities in Latvia in 1944-1945 between nationalist German and Soviet USSR armies.
Destination of Latvian refugees, 1944-1959.
- From 1945-1955 Nationalist partisans continue to campaign in Latvia for independence.
- 21st of August, 1991, Latvia declares the restoration of independence.
- 17th of June, 1999. For the first time in Latvia’s history a female is elected as President of Republic of Latvia (Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga)
- 29th March, 2004. Latvia becomes a member of NATO.
- 1st of May, 2004. Latvia becomes a member of the European Union.
Summary is based on important dates in the book: Latvijas vēsture. Enciklopēdija par svarīgākajiem notikumiem Latvijā no vissenākajiem laikiem līdz mūsdienām. Zvaigzne ABC, Dainis Cipulis.
The Museum of the Occupation of Latvia 1940 – 1991: http://okupacijasmuzejs.lv/en
National History Museum of Latvia. http://lnvm.lv/en/
Latvian Institute: From tribe to nation. www.li.lv